Spring Boot @PathVariable

last modified July 18, 2023

Spring Boot @PathVariable tutorial shows how to read an URL template variable with @PathVariable annotation. We create a Spring Boot RESTful application to demonstrate the annotation.

Spring is a popular Java application framework and Spring Boot is an evolution of Spring which helps create stand-alone, production-grade Spring based applications easily.


@PathVariable is a Spring annotation which indicates that a method parameter should be bound to a URI template variable.

It has the following optional elements:

Spring Boot @PathVariable example

The following example creates a Spring Boot web application which uses @PathVariable. The application receives an URL from which it builds a text response to the client.

│   ├───java
│   │   └───com
│   │       └───zetcode
│   │           │   Application.java
│   │           └───controller
│   │                   MyController.java
│   └───resources

This is the project structure of the Spring Boot application.

plugins {
    id 'org.springframework.boot' version '3.1.1'
    id 'io.spring.dependency-management' version '1.1.0'
    id 'java'

group = 'com.zetcode'
version = '0.0.1-SNAPSHOT'
sourceCompatibility = '17'

repositories {

dependencies {
    implementation 'org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-starter-web'

This is the Gradle build file. The spring-boot-starter-web is a starter for building web applications using Spring MVC. It uses Tomcat as the default embedded container.

package com.zetcode.controller;

import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.PathVariable;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestMapping;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RestController;

public class MyController {

    public String getMessage(@PathVariable("name") String name,
                             @PathVariable("age") String age) {

        return String.format("%s is %s years old", name, age);

The controller processes the request from the client. It reads two values from the URL of the request.

public class MyController {

We have a RESTful web application.

public String getMessage(@PathVariable("name") String name, 
        @PathVariable("age") String age) {

With the @PathVariable annotation, we bind the request URL template path variable to the method variable. For instance, with the /Paul/28 URL, the Paul value is bind to the name variable, and 28 value to the age variable.

return String.format("%s is %s years old", name, age);

We build the message and return it.

package com.zetcode;

import org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication;
import org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.SpringBootApplication;

public class Application  {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        SpringApplication.run(Application.class, args);

Application is the entry point which sets up Spring Boot application. The @SpringBootApplication annotation enables auto-configuration and component scanning.

$ ./gradlew bootRun

We start the Spring Boot application.

$ curl localhost:8080/Robert/39
Robert is 39 years old

We create a request to the application with the curl tool. The application responds with a message; the values were extracted from the URL with @PathVariable.

In this article we have created a RESTful web application with Spring Boot framework. We have demonstrated the usage of @PathVariable.


My name is Jan Bodnar and I am a passionate programmer with many years of programming experience. I have been writing programming articles since 2007. So far, I have written over 1400 articles and 8 e-books. I have over eight years of experience in teaching programming.

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